Long-time readers of this blog know that I’m obsessed with (i) the two forms of the Spanish imperfect subjunctive and (ii) Jordi Sierra i Fabra’s “Inspector Mascarell” series of detective novels, set in Barcelona before and during the Franco era. This post combines these two passions.
While in Cádiz during my recent visit to Andalucía, I bought a copy of the tenth novel in the “Inspector Mascarell” series, Diez días de junio. (This was at the Librería Manuel de Falla, named after one of Cádiz’s best-known native sons.) I devoured it over the next few days — and, struck as always by Sierra i Fabra’s frequent combination of the -ra and -se subjunctives within sentences, decided to keep track of all such sentences. The following table lists the fifteen examples I found.
These fifteen sentences suggest three ways that an author (or speaker) can combine the two imperfect subjunctives:
- The formulaic hiciera lo que hiciese construction (example 3; also see this earlier blog post, and ex. 6 for a counterexample).
- A single subjunctive-triggering context followed by both an -ra and an -se subjunctive, such as para que (examples 1, 4, 5), puede que (ex. 8), or pedir que (ex. 9).
- Multiple subjunctive-triggering contexts followed by a mixture of -ra and -se subjunctives, such as:
- quizá and esperar que (example 2)
- querer que and para que (ex. 7)
- pedir and para que (ex. 10, 15)
- puede que, adjective clause, aunque (ex. 11) — 3 subjunctive contexts in a single sentence!
- ordenar que, en cuanto (ex. 12)
- past tense si clause (ex. 13)
- como si, antes de que (ex. 14)
In sentences with one usage each of the -ra and -se forms, half the time the -ra subjunctive came first, and half the time the -se was first. In sentence #11 an -se subjunctive is sandwiched between two -ra forms, while in sentence #6 a single -se form is preceded by four -ra subjunctives and followed by a fifth.
The book also contains the intriguing sentence Le detuve en 1936 después de que un niño se SUICIDARA por su culpa. The use of suicidara here apparently violates the rule that después de que only triggers the subjunctive when talking about future events. After some investigating, I’ve come across three possible explanations for this usage.
- The use of the imperfect subjunctive to mention background information. This usage, often found in journalism, is discussed in Patricia Lunn’s “The Evaluative Function of the Spanish Subjunctive” (in Modality in Grammar and Discourse, eds. J. L. Bybee and S. Fleischman, John Benjamins, 1992, pp. 429-49). However, in this particular example the suicide is new news, not shared background.
- The use of the -ra imperfect subjunctive as a pluperfect indicative. The -ra subjunctive started as a Latin pluperfect indicative and was repurposed fairly recently, in the Golden Age. One still sees uses of the -ra subjunctive that hark back to its roots, as discussed in this Wordreference Forum thread.
- Analogy to antes de que. This explanation, also discussed in Patricia Lunn’s paper, makes a lot of sense! Since antes de que always triggers the subjunctive, it’s logical that después de que should, too.
Finally, I am intrigued by the apparent triggering function of lo más seguro es que (example #3). I suppose this is akin to a quizá(s).
I enjoy all your blogs where you try to figure out things. I keep a list of sentences from my reading where I have seen the subjunctive used, and haven’t been able to figure out why. I have to tell you I was SO depressed to follow your link on “despues de que” only to see so many learned (I think) disagreements about its use with the subjunctive. It tells me I will never figure this mood tense out!. But the fun is in the gramatical adventure of it all (I keep telling myself!). I am going to print your blog out and keep it with my folder on the subjunctive, thank you! As far as using the two versions of past subjunctive, if they mean “exactly the same” as I have read, authors must just enjoy mixing things up. Or perhaps there is sometimes just a shade of nuance between the two due to the history of the ra form as you mention in #2 above…? No lo sé.
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Hi. I love your blog! Having studied in Spain, I learned that after “después de que…” the subjunctive is now routinely used in Spain, and acceptable in all contexts. This is not yet true in Latin America though. It is because of the analogy with “antes de que…”.
That makes sense! Thanks for writing in.
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