I just checked, and was surprised to see that this is my first blog post about Spanish diminutives (unless you count a passing reference in my all-time second-most-viewed post on Spanish nicknames). Diminutives are word endings, such as -ito and -illo, that make a ‘little’ version of the word they are attached to. For example, a cucharita is a little spoon (cuchara) and a cigarrillo ‘cigarette’ is literally a small cigar (cigarro). Diminutives often convey affection rather than size. Pobrecito is equivalent to ‘poor thing’, and mamacita, while it has no true English equivalent, is similar to ‘dear mother’.
Spanish speakers use diminutives deliberately and even with relish, often piling them on as in chiquitillo ‘little boy’, which adds both -ito and -illo to chico ‘boy’. In this way, diminutives are different from inflectional endings, such as plural -s and -n, which speakers use without thinking. The same is true for other affective endings, such as -azo and -ón, which both mean ‘large’ and often bear an insulting tinge.
One of my favorite examples of Spanish diminutives in action comes from (where else?) Jordi Sierra i Fabra’s “Inspector Mascarell” book series, my current Spanish literary obsession. In Seis días de diciembre, the fifth book in the series, Mascarell has lunch with a customs official, Martín Centells, at Centells’s favorite restaurant near the port of Barcelona. As a regular patron, Centells receives the best treatment from Quique, the chef/owner. Quique uses diminutives to describe the specialties of the day with loving pride:
— ¿Qué tienes hoy, Quique?
— Una sopita de pescado de las buenas. Y de segundo sardinitas pero de las que anoche estaban en el mar tan tranquilas que las ha pescado mi suegro.
— What do you have today, Quique?
— A terrific fish soup, and as a second course, sardines that were relaxing in the ocean until my father-in-law caught them last night.
Interestingly, Sierra i Fabra maintains the diminutive when describing how Quique serves the food (Ya traía las sardinitas), but drops it when Mascarell and Centells eat: Probó la sopa ‘He tasted the soup’, atacando la primera sardina ‘attacking the first sardine’.
Darn it, now I’m hungry.
A very interesting thing about the different types of diminutives is that some, such as the -it- ones are considered by some to be inflections that do not create new lexemes, just slightly modified versions of existing lexemes, whereas others, most notably the ones in -ill- produce new lexemes altogether. So a cigarrillo is not literally a small cigar. That would be cigarrito. Cigarrillo is a new lexeme based on an existing one. It’s actually more complicated than this, but this is a major distinction we cannot ignore.
True! In some cases the diminutive form of a noun has even take over the original un-diminutive meaning. Examples include mantequilla (originally a diminutive of manteca) and oveja, oreja, and abeja, whose -eja ending started as a Latin diminutive attached to ovis, auris, and apis.
Pingback: The linguistics of “Despacito” | Spanish Linguist