When I was a girl studying Spanish as a second language, I learned to use the question ¿Qué tiempo hace? to ask about the weather. It translates literally as ‘What weather is it making?’ and was, in fact, one of the first examples I every came across that showed how different languages can express the same concept it fundamentally different ways. It comes with a list of related phrases such as Hace calor ‘It’s hot’, Hace sol ‘It’s sunny’ (literally ‘It makes heat/sun’), and so on, though some other weather expressions, such as Está nublado ‘It’s cloudy’ and Está a x grados ‘It’s X degrees’, use verbs other than hacer ‘to make’.
These expressions went into my back pocket and I’ve been pulling them out for years, both when speaking Spanish myself and as a teacher.
So you can imagine my surprise to learn, via a recent discussion in /r/Spanish, that this terminology doesn’t fly in most of the New World. The discussion began with an American (US) speaker of Guatemalan heritage complaining that people don’t understand ¿Qué tiempo hace? when he visits Guatemala. Others chimed in with similar perspectives from Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Argentina. Alternative wordings from these areas are:
- ¿Cómo está (hoy) el clima? (Mexico, Peru)
- ¿Cómo está el tiempo? (Colombia)
- Hay sol. (Argentina) Hay viento. (Peru)
It was especially impressive that this difference actually caused misunderstandings, with speakers in some countries interpreting any question about tiempo to be time-related.
I was amused to read one Peruvian’s perspective than “¿Qué tiempo hace? is an old construction to ask information about weather in my country. If I recall correctly it’s used in Spain, you could probably meet the term with old people most likely. Nowadays to avoid confusion Latin countries mostly use clima which translates exactly as weather. The current usage of this word makes newer generations oblivious of the former construction tho.”
So…am I old? Biased toward Spanish Spanish? Or out of touch? In any case, the next time I teach first-year Spanish I will be sure to use this topic as an opportunity to discuss dialectal differences.
Yo no me fiaría mucho de lo que dice una persona que asevera que clima significa “weather”. Clima significa climate, que es algo muy distinto que weather, en todas partes, que yo sepa.
Por otro lado, ¿Cómo está el tiempo? es algo perfectamente normal en muchos sitios. Y aunque he oído “Hay sol” y “Hay viento”, a mí me da que son variantes dialectales que no se usan en muchas partes y que no son español estándar, que es lo que se suele enseñar.
Jon, encontré varios usos de *clima* con el sentido de ‘weather’ aquí y , aquí (comentarios del mexicano), y aquí. Me sorprendió también.